Since the time of the Roman Empire, radiant systems have been used to deliver heat to buildings. One of the more recent modern examples involves Frank Lloyd Wright, who incorporated hydronic radiant heat into his designs in the 1930s. With the development of advanced materials in the 1960s-specifically PEX, or cross-linked polyethylene-this comfortable, efficient and effective source of heat has become extremely reliable, durable, safe and readily available.
PEX pipe is used extensively in Europe for underfloor heating. In North America, PEX radiant heating systems are rapidly gaining in popularity.
How Does Radiant Heating Work?Heated surfaces radiate energy, which is absorbed by other objects in a room. These other objects, in turn, radiate energy to other, cooler objects. This temperature difference is the driving force behind radiant heat transfer.
Hydronic radiant floor heating employs heated water flowing through tubes or pipes under the floor. The heated surface then functions as a radiator, warming a room and all objects and people in it. This type of heating provides superior comfort and efficiency compared to traditional forced air convection heating. The heating profile is much more uniform, meaning fewer cold/hot spots.
PEX tubing has become the dominant piping material for radiant heating installations. Besides easy manipulation, PEX is popular because:
- It warms everything in the room with a consistent, uniform heat.
- It is easier to install.
- It is economical, reducing operating costs by up to 30%.
- Hydronic systems are quiet and clean-no noisy fans or dry, blown air distributing dust, allergens or odors throughout a space.
- It provides zone control. With the simple addition of thermostats, users can adjust a space to meet specific needs for a particular room or time of day.
- PEX pipe systems are not visible, meaning no bulky appliances, registers, or ventilation ducts.
PEX Pipe Facts and FiguresPEX features a three-dimensional molecular bond created within the structure of the plastic, either before or after the extrusion process. Through chemical/physical reactions, manufacturers structurally modify the polyethylene chains, significantly improving performance on properties like heat deformation, and chemical, abrasion, and stress crack resistance. The resulting pipe has greater impact and tensile strength, improved creep resistance, decreased shrinkage, and performs extremely well at high temperatures and pressures.
Plastics Pipe Institute (PPI) TR-4, Hydrostatic Design Basis (HDB), Strength Design Basis (SDB), Pressure Design Basis (PDB) and Minimum Required Strength (MRS) Ratings for Thermoplastic Piping Materials or Pipe, lists PEX materials for various operating temperatures and maximum stresses. Some can be used continuously at operating temperatures as high as 200
Standards for PEX Pipe SystemsMost PEX tubing is made according to ASTM International F 876, Standard Specification for Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing; ASTM F 877, Standard Specification for Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX) Plastic Hot-and Cold-Water Distribution Systems; and Canadian Standards Association (CSA) B137, Thermoplastic Pressure Piping Compendium (refer to B137.5). All standards cover only outside, diameter-controlled CTS-sized tubing of 0.13-in. to 2-in. (3-mm to 51-mm) diameters, SDR 9, and operating temperatures up to 180
Fittings and JoiningA range of mechanical couplings, including compression, flare, and crimp rings, has been developed for PEX pipe joining. (They can be used because PEX's cross-linking effects eliminate concerns about creep, cold flow, and stress crack.) PEX pipe is available in a variety of lengths, so no fittings are generally required for a continuous loop between the supply and return manifolds. This benefit translates into reduced installation time and cost.
Installing Radiant PipingPEX tubing for radiant heating installations can be installed in new construction or retrofitted within existing structures. The pipe is typically installed in the floor, but tubing can be installed in walls and ceilings, as well. The design of the system depends greatly on the structure and amount of heating required. It takes a trained and certified installer to ensure the system performs at optimum levels and projected cost savings are realized. The hot water source for radiant heating is generally a separate boiler designed specifically for the job. On rare occasions, a residential water heater is used to heat small areas, like a bathroom.
Most residential installations use 0.5-in. (13-mm) diameter tubing, while commercial and snowmelt systems employ 0.75-in. (19-mm) tubing. Supply and return lines are usually 0.75 in. to 1 in. (19 mm to 25 mm) in diameter. The water to various zones is supplied from a main line into a manifold system controlling the individual zones. This way, more or less heat can be directed to certain areas. The PEX tubing is laid out in continuous loops at spacing determined by the designer.
Incoming water is the warmest, so it is directed to the higher heat loss areas first. As the water circulates through the zone, it cools, so the last section of tubing before exiting is located in the lower heat loss areas. For example, most systems are designed to run the first-and warmest-part of the loop near outside walls and doors where heat loss is more prevalent. The loop then ends in the middle of the room (typically the warmest part).
The linear foot of tubing needed depends on many factors. But as a general rule-of-thumb, a residential system will use around half a meter (1 ft. to 2 ft.) of tubing per square foot of floor space for normal heating requirements. For high heat loss areas, the amount of tubing could increase to about 1 m (2 ft. to 4 ft.) of tubing per square foot of floor space.
The PEX pipe can be installed in flooring several different ways. For new construction, the tubing can be secured to reinforcing wire mesh or steel rebar. This is done every meter or so (3 ft. to 4 ft.), or as needed, using plastic or soft metal ties, with concrete or grout poured overtop. For suspended flooring, the tubing is attached directly to the wood subfloor with plastic clamps or special staples.
The tubing can also be installed to the underside of suspended flooring, when necessary. After laying and securing the loops, the system should be tested to 689 kPa (100 psi) to ensure the tubing has not been damaged during installation (i.e. the connection to the manifolds has been properly assembled).